web browsers for mobile phone

Mobile Browser is also known as wireless internet browser (WIB), is a web browser specially designed for use on a mobile device such as a mobile phone or on PDA mobiles. Mobile browsers are designed for small screens on portable devices. Mobile browser software must be small and efficient to use at the low memory capacity and low bandwidth of wireless devices. As of 2006 some of mobile browsers could handle technologies like CSS 2.1, JavaScript and Ajax also. Websites designed for access from mobile browsers are known as web portal. They might create mobile phone version of every page.

Popular mobile browsers:

Mobile browser is a web emulator, which uses a Virtual Handset to display WAP pages on your computer screen, implemented
under in Java or as a HTML transcoder. Following are some of popular mobile browser examples.

WebKit is layout engine design for web browsers to open web pages. WebKit powers Google Chrome and Safari too.

Firefox for mobile is name for the Mozilla Firefox web browser devices such as mobile phones and PDA.

NetFront Browser is beautiful mobile internet browser used for embedded devices and it is developed by Access Co. Ltd. and was designed as an embedded browser.

Opera Mobile is smart web browser specially designed for windows mobiles, java phones and small nokia classic phones.

Skyfire is elegant web browser which renders requested web page on mobile phones, Skyfire normally runs on Google Android and its no longer support for Symbian Operating systems or Windows Mobiles.

Opera Mini is mobile web browser clearly designed for mobile phones, smartphones and for personal digital devices.

Vision formerly called nWeb is smart internet browser for mobile devices designed by Novarra Inc. The product consists service that acts as a proxy that works on Java Platform.

WinWAP web browser is designed for WAP made phones by Winwap Technologies and it is available for Microsoft Windows and any Windows CE powered device.

These are some mobile phone browsers from many browser and some others are as follows:

Default Browsers Used By Vendors:

Android browser
BlackBerry Browser
Firefox for mobile
Internet Explorer Mobile
Iris Browser
Kindle Basic Web
Myriad Browser
Nokia Series 40 Browser
Obigo Browser
Opera Mobile
PlayStation Portable web browser
Polaris Browser
Series 60 web browser
Skyfire Mobile Browser
uZard Web
WebOS Browser

User installable Web browsers:

BOLT browser
Dolphin Browser
Firefox for mobile
Opera Mini
Opera Mobile
UC Browser
Vision Mobile Browser

Now, you can download that browsers from internet and surf internet on your phone or other digital media device via your
favorite mobile phone browser.


How To Bluetooth and Bluetooth History

Bluetooth History:
Bluetooth is a wireless technology for exchanging data over distance, mobile devices or computers, creating personal area networks with high security. Bluetooth is Created by Ericsson company in 1994, it was conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can be connect with several devices, due to problems of synchronization. Bluetooth services was firstly developed by Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson when they were working for Ericsson in Sweden.
Bluetooth is controlled by “Bluetooth Special Interest Group”, which has 14,000+ member companies in the field of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. To be marketed as a Bluetooth device, it must be qualified with the standards of SIG. Network of patent is required to implement the technology and only licensed to those qualifying devices.

Name And Logo:

Bluetooth word is an anglicised version of the Scandinavian Blåtand. Bluetooth Logo comes from bind rune merging the Younger Futhark runes Hagall, Bjarkan, Haralds initials.

Setting up connections:

Any Bluetooth in discoverable mode will transmit following info (on demand):Device name, Device class, List of services.
Any device may perform inquiry or respond to find or configure other devices to connect. if the device is trying to connect knows the address of other device, it always replys to direct connection requests and transmits the information shown in the list above if requested. Use of a device services might require pairing or acception by its owner, but the connection itself can be initiated by any device and held. Some Bluetooth devices can be connect with only one device at a moment.

Every Bluetooth device has its own unique 48-bit address. these addresses are generally not shown. Instead of that address friendly Bluetooth names are used, which can be set by device user. That names appears when another user scans for devices.

Most phones have the Bluetooth name set with manufacture or model of phone by defaulted by company. Most of phones and laptops shows only Bluetooth names and some special programs are required to get additional information about such device.


Bluetooth is running by radio technology which is called frequency hopping spread spectrum, that chops up several data being sent and transmits chunks of it on up to 79 bands (1 MHz each; centered from 2402 to 2480 MHz) in the range 2,400-2,483.5 MHz (allowing for guard bands). This range is in the globally unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) 2.4GHz short-range radio frequency band.

Bluetooth provides a security to connect or exchange information or data between several devices such as fax machines, mobile phones, laptop notebooks, PCs, PRinting Machines, GPS receivers, Digital Cameras and also video game consoles.

Communication System:

Major Bluetooth devices can communicate with up to seven devices in a piconet at a time. At any time, data could be transferred between the main and one other device. The master bluetooth chooses which slave device to address, typically, it switches rapidly from another device in a round-robin fashion. Bluetooth provides for the connection of two or more piconets to form a scatternet, in this system certain devices serve as bridges, and they playing the master role in one piconet and the slave role in another.

Most of USB Bluetooth adapters or “dongles” are available, some from them also include an IrDA adapter. In starting Bluetooth dongles, however, have limited capabilities, providing only the Bluetooth Enumerator and a low powerful Bluetooth Radio incarnation. These devices can link computers with Bluetooth with a distance of 100 meters, but they do not offer as many services like modern adapters.


Bluejacking is the sending of picture or message from one bluetooth user to another suspicious user through Bluetooth wireless technology. Applications include short messages (e.g., You have just been hacked by bluejack!). Bluejacking is not involve in the removal of any data from the device. Bluejacking can be involve taking control of a mobile wirelessly or phoning a premium rate line, which is owned by the bluejacker.


In future we will see bluetooth in every field, when childern uses bluetooth for their education purposes and for the copying of their homework as well, office use this service for their customers and employees to check their work and demands. Bluetooth will play important role for medical services. Hope these services will never used for teasing someone or community.

Helped from wikipedia.org

How to Shave and Shaving Tips

how to avoid razor burn?

Want close and quick shave? while not bleeding to death, has been one of the banes of mankind. The electric razor has seriously reduced the blood loss. There are however a few tricks that can help with closeness. Here they are:

1. Make sure you have a smooth screen and a sharp blade. It is recommended that you replace these at least once a year, or you will fail to get a good shave, and may end up irritating your skin.

2. Wash your face. This will help soften your beard and thus make it easier to get a clean shave.
Wash the places you are going to shave with warm water.
Wet a washcloth with hot water. Hold it to your beard/stubble for a few minutes.
Dry your face and dust your beard/stubble with talcum powder.

3. Use an alcohol based pre-shave. This can be used instead of step two. It will remove oils on your skin, and make your facial hair stand straight up. A powder version can be used if you find alcohol to be an irritant.

4. Find the grain of your whiskers. Do this by rubbing the places where your facial hair grows. One direction will feel smooth. This direction is “with the grain.” This other direction will give resistance when you rub it. This is “against the grain”.

shaving tips for men.

Most electric shavers are made for men and most complaint that electric shavers or electric razors are not suitable for their skin due to reasons like itchy and sore skin and also irritation caused by the shavers.

Most men will then just stop using electric shavers and give up thinking that they have a tough beard and also sensitive skin but actually they have to be patient and the face will get use to the shavers after a week or two.

there are 10 additional tips to avoid Razor Bumps, these are also best shaving tips forever.

1. Don’t shave after shower or after you wash your face. Shave when your face is dry for a closer shave but this can be painful sometimes.

2. Shave up “against the grain” and horizontally across the face.

3. To cut easily, stretch the hairs upright with your fingers.

4. Make sure that you follow the cleaning and maintenance instructions and change the foils and cutters as needed.

5. Read the instruction manual for the closest shave tips.

6. Get an electric shaver that comes with an auto cleaning function and also washable.

7. Get the correct shavers. Rotary type works better on light beards while Foil type is for an old fashion way of shaving.

8. Shave daily if time permits because electric shavers are more effective cutting short facial hair and it is less painful. Buy an electric shaver with built-in gel dispenser to minimize skin irritation if you always get razor burn.

9. If you have sensitive skin, apply some baby powder to your face to reduce friction while shaving.

10. Keep the electric shaver away from stray hairs to avoid the hairs being pulled and clogging up the shaver. If the shaver is powered up by batteries, keep some spare batteries.

Hope these shaving tips will work for you.


History Of Cables And Cords

History, Types and Biography of cables.

Electrical cables may be made more flexible by stranding the wires. In this process, smaller individual wires are twisted or braided together to produce larger wires that are more flexible than solid wires of similar size. Bunching small wires before concentric stranding adds the most flexibility. Copper wires in a cable may be bare, or they may be plated with a thin layer of another metal, most often tin but sometimes gold, silver or some other material. Tin, gold, and silver are much less prone to oxidation than copper, which may lengthen wire life, and makes soldering easier. Tinning is also used to provide lubrication between strands. Tinning was used to help removal of rubber insulation. Tight lays during stranding makes the cable extensible (CBA – as in telephone handset cords).Cables can be securely fastened and organized, such as by using trunking, cable trays, cable ties or cable lacing. Continuous-flex or flexible cables used in moving applications within cable carriers can be secured using strain relief devices or cable ties.At high frequencies, current tends to run along the surface of the conductor. This is known as the skin effect.

Cables and electromagnetic fields

Any current-carrying conductor, including a cable, radiates an electromagnetic field. Likewise, any conductor or cable will pick up energy from any existing electromagnetic field around it. These effects are often undesirable, in the first case amounting to unwanted transmission of energy which may adversely affect nearby equipment or other parts of the same piece of equipment; and in the second case, unwanted pickup of noise which may mask the desired signal being carried by the cable, or, if the cable is carrying power supply or control voltages, pollute them to such an extent as to cause equipment malfunction.The first solution to these problems is to keep cable lengths in buildings short, since pick up and transmission are essentially proportional to the length of the cable. The second solution is to route cables away from trouble. Beyond this, there are particular cable designs that minimize electromagnetic pickup and transmission. Three of the principal design techniques are shielding, coaxial geometry, and twisted-pair geometry.Shielding makes use of the electrical principle of the Faraday cage. The cable is encased for its entire length in foil or wire mesh. All wires running inside this shielding layer will be to a large extent decoupled from external electric fields, particularly if the shield is connected to a point of constant voltage, such as earth. Simple shielding of this type is not greatly effective against low-frequency magnetic fields, however – such as magnetic “hum” from a nearby power transformer. A grounded shield on cables operating at 2 kV or more gathers leakage current and capacitive current, protecting people from electric shock and equalizing stress on the cable insulation.Coaxial design helps to further reduce low-frequency magnetic transmission and pickup. In this design the foil or mesh shield is perfectly tubular – i.e. with a circular cross section – and the inner conductor (there can only be one) is situated exactly at its center. This causes the voltages induced by a magnetic field between the shield and the core conductor to consist of two nearly equal magnitudes which cancel each other.The twisted pair is a simple expedient where two wires of a cable, rather than running parallel to each other, are twisted around each other, forming a pair of intertwined helices. This can be achieved by putting one end of the pair in a hand drill and turning while maintaining moderate tension on the line. Field cancellation between successive twists of the pair considerably reduces electromagnetic pickup and transmission.Power-supply cables feeding sensitive electronic devices are sometimes fitted with a series-wired inductor called a choke which blocks high frequencies that may have been picked up by the cable, preventing them from passing into the device.

Fire protection

In building construction, electrical cable jacket material is a potential source of fuel for fires. To limit the spread of fire along cable jacketing, one may use cable coating materials or one may use cables with jacketing that is inherently fire retardant. The plastic covering on some metal clad cables may be stripped off at installation to reduce the fuel source for accidental fires. In Europe in particular, it is often customary to place inorganic wraps and boxes around cables in order to safeguard the adjacent areas from the potential fire threat associated with unprotected cable jacketing. However, this fire protection also traps heat generated from conductor losses, so the protection must be thin.There are two methods of providing fire protection to a cable:Insulation material is deliberately added up with fire retardant materialsThe copper conductor itself is covered with mineral insulation (MICC cables)

Electrical cable types

Basic cable types are as follows:

Shape: Ribbon cable

Construction: Based on construction and cable properties it can be sorted into the following: Coaxial cable, Mineral-insulated copper-clad cable, Twinax cable, Flexible cables, Non-metallic sheathed cable (or nonmetallic building wire,  NM,  NM-B), Metallic sheathed cable (or armored cable, AC, or BX), Multicore cable (consist of more than one wire and is covered by cable jacket), Shielded cable, Single cable (from time to time this name is used for wire), Twisted pair, Twisting cable, Special Arresting cable, Bowden cable, Heliax cable, Direct-buried cable, Heavy-lift cable, Elevator cable.


Audiovisual cable

Bicycle cable

Communications cable

Computer cable

Mechanical cable

Sensing cable

Submersible cable

Wire rope (wire cable)

Thanks to Wikipedia.org

Sony Ericsson C902 Mobile Phone Complete Theoretical Review

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Sony Ericsson c902 is best phone for photography i have ever used. it’s kept me in the loop with the help of online blogging option. some reviews are mentioned which i tried in my phone and want to share with you.

Sony Ericsson C902 Mobile Phone:

C902 is a 107 grams phone has a Lithium Ion battery type, which provides talk time of 540 minutes and standby time of 400 hours. It comes with features like 256k colour TFT display with resolution of 240 x 320 pixels, 5 megapixel autofocus camera with flash and video recorder. It has added features like Quad band, 160MB inbuilt memory, Memory Stick Micro card slot, Bluetooth, GPRS and USB connector. A Wonderful mobile Phone From Sony Ericsson.

Sony Ericsson C902 is right phone for those who love to chat for long while even when on the go. It is enabled with a 3G HSDPA high speed internet connection. Where you can access the internet anytime you like. It also offers a connection speed of up to 3.6 Mbit. with this new C902, you can browse the internet even when you are on call with a close one. None of these features interrupts the other. Apart from that, you also get to customize your internet browsing on the phone since it has a feature wherein you can choose the news or information that you want to know and get it delivered on your mobile itself!

Key Features:

It is the best feature among all phones i have ever watched. Sony Ericsson C902 is enabled with advanced technology. Since it comes from the Cyber shot family, it has an excellent in built camera that delivers amazing picture quality. What is more alluring is that it has some really amazing is that it has almost all the features that you would find in any digital camera. Sony Ericsson C902 has a 5 megapixels camera with a 16x digital zoom. So, no matter where you are, you can click images even from a distance. It is enabled with other features like image stabilizer, red eye reduction, photo flash, photo fix and video light, video record and video stabilizer. Apart from this, it has a unique feature called picture blogging. This features lets you click a snap and send it directly to a blog. The way you want blogging just snap pictures and post where you want. easy feature of motion sensor will help you to rotate the screen for wide screen blogging.


Sony Ericsson C902 has dimensions of 108.0 x 49.0 x 10.5 mm (LxWxD). It is a slim mobile that comes in a bar form. It weighs 107 grams. It is a bit heavy in this section, otherwise the phone is a winner. When supporting a UMTS 2100 and an HSDPA network, it offers a talk time of 4 hours and a standby time of 360 hours. On the other hand, when assisting a GSM 900, 1800, 1900 or EDGE network, this phone allows a talk time of 9 hours. Sony C902 offers a standby time of 380 hours. So, now you can talk for hours together with your friends and yet your mobile won’t give in. Sony Ericsson C902 is to be operated with the convenient navigation key which makes it simpler to operate. It also has Picture wallpaper that acts as a background when the mobile is on standby mode. It is enabled with the Auto rotate option where you can switch from the vertical to the horizontal mode by rotating the phone so that you can use the phone the way you like.

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Stay Connected:

The Sony Ericsson C902 offers you special features like wireless connectivity. it allows you to transfer data like files, music and videos without the trouble of the wires. Apart from this, it has a Bluetooth connection. It is also enabled with a Modem that lets you get connected to the internet at any point and time. Along with this, Sony Ericsson C902 has a USB device and PC sync. So, you can transfer data from your PC to your mobile and vice versa. Powerful data transfer will help you to connect you to your computer.

Entertainment Features:

Sony Ericsson C902 is enabled with a whole lot of entertainment features. It is equipped with a media player that gives you access to all your favorite numbers. To add to this, when you watch, the media player ensures that their quality is good. For excellent quality basal sounds. It has an internal memory of 160 MB. You may also listen to your favorite songs on the radio. With Sony Ericsson C902, you can enjoy new games and pass your time in the most interesting manner. It is equipped with 3D games. Apart from this, it also supports JAVA. Hence, you can download as many games as you like.

Advance Incredible  Features:

Sony Ericsson C902 have exciting features of Photo Editing. Photo editing is best source to edit your photos filter your face. include masks to your face and write text on your photo with many fonts. also the RADIO RDS feature allows you to catch FM radio channel name automatically. when you power on the radio the feature of RDS will work and mention the name of channel on your screen. Enjoy motion sensor applications on your mobile phone with it’s outstanding feature of Sony Ericsson C902 can run motion games on you phone, also other applications like map direction, compass, aerometer and many more applications like that you can run with this feature.
from heart it’s an excellent mobile phone for music lovers and amateur photographers as well.

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Tripod Reviews

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tripod is a portable three-legged frame, used as a platform for supporting the weight and maintaining the stability of some other object. The word comes from the Greek tripous, meaning “three feet”. A tripod provides stability against downward forces, horizontal forces and moments about the vertical axis. The positioning of the three feet away from the vertical centre allows the tripod better leverage for resisting lateral forces. Tripods have the disadvantage of being heavy and bulky although they can be used with large equipment.


First attested in English in the early 17th century, the word tripod comes via Latin “tripodis”, genitive of “tripus”, which is the romanization of Greek “τρίπους” (tripous), “three-footed”, (gen. “τρίποδος” – tripodos), ultimately from “τρι-” (tri-), “three times” (from “τρία” – tria, “three”) + “πούς” (pous), “foot”. The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek ti-ri-po-de, written in Linear B syllabic script

Cultural use

Many cultures, including the ancient peoples of China and Greece, used tripods as ornaments, trophies, sacrificial altars, cooking vessels or cauldrons, and decorative ceramic pottery. Sacrificial tripods were found in use in ancient China usually cast in bronze but sometimes appearing in ceramic form. In prehistoric times, around 2500 B.C., these tripods were found in the northeast culture, near to the provinces of Hopei (in which Beijing is located), Shantung, and southernManchuria. The people of this culture were ancestors of the Tunguses and mixed with Paleo-Siberian tribes. They made pottery with basic forms which were long preserved in subsequent Chinese pottery, such as a tripod. They are often referred to as “dings” and usually have three legs, but in some usages have four legs.

The Chinese use sacrificial tripods symbolically in modern times, such as in 2005, when a “National Unity Tripod” made of bronze was presented by the central Chinese government to the government of northwest China’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region to mark its fiftieth birthday. It was described as a traditional Chinese sacrificial vessel symbolizing unity.

In ancient Greece, tripods were frequently used to support lebes, or cauldrons, sometimes for cooking and other uses such as supporting vases.


On firearms, tripods are commonly used on machine guns to provide a forward rest and to reduce motion from recoil. Machine guns are capable of firing long continuous bursts of fire, but at the cost of increased recoil (which decreases accuracy), and increased weight (machine guns are heavier in order to absorb the stresses of prolonged fully-automatic fire). The tripod permits the operator to rest the weapon on the ground and thus the gun feels lighter to the shooter and accuracy is increased



Tripods are used for both motion and still photography to prevent camera movement and provide stability. They are especially necessary when slow-speed exposures are being made, or when telephoto lenses are used, as any camera movement while the shutter is open will produce a blurred image. In the same vein, they reducecamera shake, and thus are instrumental in achieving maximum sharpness. A tripod is also helpful in achieving precise framing of the image, or when more than one image is being made of the same scene, for example when bracketing the exposure. Use of a tripod may also allow for a more thoughtful approach to photography. For all of these reasons a tripod of some sort is often necessary for professional photography. In relation to film/video, use of the tripod offers stability within a shot as well as certain desired heights. The head of a Film Camera Tripod allows free flowing movement with which you can easily track a subject or pan left/right as well as tilt up and down. The use of a tripod within film/video is often a creative choice of the Director.


For maximum strength and stability, as well as for easy levelling, most photographic tripods are braced around a centre vertical post, with collapsible telescopic legs. To further allow extension, the centre post can usually extend above the meeting of three legs. At the top of the tripod is the head, which includes the camera mount (usually a detachable plate with a thumbscrew to hold the camera). The head connects to the frame by several joints, allowing the camera to pan, tilt and roll. The head usually attaches to a lever so that adjustments to the orientation can be performed more delicately. Some tripods also feature integrated remote controls for a camera, though these are usually proprietary to the company that made the camera.


A surveyor’s tripod is a device used to support any one of a number of surveying instruments, such as theodolites, total stations, levels or transits.


The tripod is placed in the location where it is needed. The surveyor will press down on the legs’ platforms to securely anchor the legs in soil or to force the feet to a low position on uneven, pock-marked pavement. Leg lengths are adjusted to bring the tripod head to a convenient height and make it roughly level.

Once the tripod is positioned and secure, the instrument is placed on the head. The mounting screw is pushed up under the instrument to engage the instrument’s base and screwed tight when the instrument is in the correct position. The flat surface of the tripod head is called the foot plate and is used to support the adjustable feet of the instrument.

Positioning the tripod and instrument precisely over an indicated mark on the ground or benchmark requires techniques that are beyond the scope of this article.


Many modern tripods are constructed of aluminum, though wood is still used for legs. The feet are either aluminum tipped with a steel point or steel. The mounting screw is often brass or brass and plastic. The mounting screw is hollow to allow the optical plumb to be viewed through the screw. The top is typically threaded with a 5/8″ x 11 tpi screw thread. The mounting screw is held to the underside of the tripod head by a movable arm. This permits the screw to be moved anywhere within the head’s opening. The legs are attached to the head with adjustable screws that are usually kept tight enough to allow the legs to be moved with a bit of resistance. The legs are two part, with the lower part capable of telescoping to adjust the length of the leg to suit the terrain. Aluminum or steel slip joints with a tightening screw are at the bottom of the upper leg to hold the bottom part in place and fix the length. A shoulder strap is often affixed to the tripod to allow for ease of carrying the equipment over areas to be surveyed.


The astronomical tripod is a sturdy three-leg stand used to support telescopes or binoculars, though they may also be used to support attached cameras or ancillary equipment. The astronomical tripod is normally fitted with an altazimuth or equatorial mount to assist in tracking celestial bodies.

Source: Wikipedia.org

Gaming Players And their Reviews

Game Console, Video game console, Video Games, Video Games, Gaming Player, PSP, XBOX 360, Play Station, Wii, Nintendo.

video game console is an interactive entertainment computer or modified computer system that produces a video display signal which can be used with a display device (a television, monitor, etc.) to display a video game. The term “video game console” is used to distinguish a machine designed forconsumers to buy and use solely for playing video games from a personal computer, which has many other functions, or arcade machines, which are designed for businesses that buy them and then charge others to play.

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First generation:

Although the first computer games appeared in the 1950s,[1] they were based around vector displays, not analog video. It was not until 1972 that Magnavox released the first home video game console which could be connected to a TV set—the Magnavox Odyssey, invented byRalph H. Baer. The Odyssey was initially only moderately successful, and it was not until Atari’s arcade game Pong popularized video games, that the public began to take more notice of the emerging industry. By the autumn of 1975 Magnavox, bowing to the popularity of Pong, cancelled the Odyssey and released a scaled down console that only played Pong and hockey, the Odyssey 100. A second “higher end” console, the Odyssey 200, was released with the 100 and added onscreen scoring, up to four players, and a third game—Smash. Almost simultaneously released with Atari’s own home Pong console through Sears, these consoles jump-started the consumer market. As with the arcade market, the home market was soon flooded by dedicated consoles that played simple pong and pong-derived games.

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Second generation

Fairchild released the Fairchild Video Entertainment System (VES) in 1976. While there had been previous game consoles that used cartridges, either the cartridges had no information and served the same function as flipping switches (the Odyssey) or the console itself was empty and the cartridge contained all of the game components. The VES, however, contained a programmable microprocessor so its cartridges only needed a single ROM chip to store microprocessor instructions.

RCA and Atari soon released their own cartridge-based consoles.

Video game crash of 1977

In 1977, manufacturers of older, obsolete consoles sold their systems at a loss to clear stock, creating a glut in the market and causing Fairchild and RCA to abandon their game consoles. Only Atari and Magnavox stayed in the home console market.

Rebirth of the home console market

The VES continued to be sold at a profit after the 1977 crash, and both Bally (with their Home Library Computer in 1977) and Magnavox (with the Odyssey² in 1978) brought their own programmable cartridge-based consoles to the market. However, it was not until Atari released a conversion of the arcade hit Space Invaders in 1980 that the home console industry was completely revived. Many consumers bought an Atari just for Space InvadersSpace Invaders‘ unprecedented success started the trend of console manufacturers trying to get exclusive rights to arcade titles, and the trend of advertisements for game consoles claiming to bring the arcade experience home.

Throughout the early 1980s, other companies released video game consoles of their own. Many of the video game systems were technically superior to the Atari 2600, and marketed as improvements over the Atari 2600. However, Atari dominated the console market in the early 1980s.

Video game crash of 1983

In 1983, the video game business suffered a much more severe crash. A flood of consoles, low quality video games by smaller companies (especially for the 2600), industry leader Atari hyping games such as E.T. that were poorly received, and a growing number of home computerusers caused consumers and retailers to lose faith and interest in video game consoles. Most video game companies filed for bankruptcy, or moved into other industries, abandoning their game consoles. Mattel Electronics sold the rights for its Intellivision system to the INTV Corporation, who continued to produce Intellivision consoles and develop new games for the Intellivision until 1991. All other North American game consoles were discontinued by 1984.

Third generation

In 1983, Nintendo released the Family Computer (or Famicom) in Japan. Like the ColecoVision, the Famicom supported high-resolution sprites and tiled backgrounds, but with more colors. This allowed Famicom games to be longer and have more detailed graphics. Nintendo brought their Famicom over to the US in the form of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) in 1985. In the US, video games were seen as a fad that had already passed. To distinguish its product from older video game consoles, Nintendo used a front-loading cartridge port similar to a VCR on the NES, packaged the NES with a Super Mario Brothers game and a light gun (the Zapper), and originally advertised it as a toy. The plastic “robot” (R.O.B.) was also sold as an individual purchase item and in some cases packaged with the NES system.

Like Space Invaders for the 2600, Nintendo found its breakout hit game in Super Mario Bros.Nintendo’s success revived the video game industry and new consoles were soon introduced in the following years to compete with the NES.

Sega’s Master System was intended to compete with the NES, but never gained any significant market share in the US and was barely profitable. It fared notably better in PAL territories, especially Brazil.

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Fourth generation

Sega regained market share by releasing its next-generation console, the Mega Drive/Genesis, which was released in Japan on October 29, 1988, in the U.S. in August 1989 (renamed as the Sega Genesis) and in Europe in 1990, two years before Nintendo could release the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES).

Sega extended the Mega Drive with the Mega CD/Sega CD, to provide increased storage space for multimedia-based games that were then in vogue among the development community. Later, Sega released the 32X, which added some of the polygon-processing functionality common in fifth-generation machines. However, the peripheral was a commercial failure due to lack of software support, with developers more keen to concentrate on more powerful machines, with a wider user base, such as the Saturn that followed shortly after.

Other consoles included in the fourth generation are NEC’s TurboGrafx-16 and SNK Playmore’s Neo Geo.

Fifth generation

The first fifth generation consoles were the Atari Jaguar and the 3DO. Both of these systems were much more powerful than the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) or Mega Drive (known as Genesis in North America); they were better at rendering polygons, could display more onscreen colors, and the 3DO used discs that contained far more information than cartridges and were cheaper to produce. Neither of these consoles were serious threats to Sega or Nintendo, though. The 3DO cost more than the SNES and Genesis combined, and the Jaguar was extremely difficult to program for, leading to a lack of games that used its extra power. Both consoles would be discontinued in 1996. Bandai introduced an Apple Macintosh based console called the Pippin that was more like a low cost computer than a high end console, but did poorly in the market.

Nintendo released games like Donkey Kong Country that could display a wide range of tones (something common in fifth generation games) by limiting the number of hues onscreen, and games like Star Fox that used an extra chip inside of the cartridge to display polygon graphics. Sega followed suit, releasing Vectorman and Virtua Racing (the latter of which used the Sega Virtua Processor).

It was not until Sega’s Saturn, Sony’s PlayStation, and the Nintendo 64 were released that fifth generation consoles started to become popular. The Saturn and PlayStation used CDs to store games, while the N64 used cartridges. All three cost far less than the 3DO, and were easier to program than the Jaguar. The Saturn also had 2D sprite handling power on par with the Neo-Geo.

  • Atari’s Jaguar was released to combat the dominance that Nintendo and Sega were fighting for. Atari’s hope was that by designing a more powerful console, it would be able to leapfrog all of the released systems of the day and give gamers a technologically superior system. The Jaguar eventually faded away due to a number of reasons. For example, it was difficult to program, thus making it too problematic to have good third-party support. Another of the Jaguar’s pitfalls was the dominance of the previously popular systems. In 1995, the releases of the Sega Saturn and the PlayStation brought the end for the Jaguar. The failure of the Jaguar put Atari into a poor financial situation and forced it to reverse merge with JTS Inc., a short-lived maker of hard disk drives, to form JTS Corporation. The merger effectively ended the company, which existed as a small department for minor support of the Jaguar and the selling off of Atari’s intellectual properties.
  • The 3DO was released in North America in October 1993. Although released to much fanfare, like the Jaguar, it faded out of the market with little popularity. The system was technically superior to all the consoles released at the time, but due to the oversaturated market and the hefty US$699.95 price tag, the system did not adopt well into the market. One unique aspect of the 3DO is that the rights to manufacturing the console itself were licensed to different manufacturers by the 3DO company, which only produced the specifications. These companies, in turn, released their own different styles of the same console.
  • The Sega Saturn was released in North America on May 11, 1995 as the first independent Sega system to use a CD-ROM based media standard, besides the Sega CD add-on for Sega Genesis, and used a special dual chip processor. The difficulty to program for the two chips in parallel was a factor in the console’s demise. The Saturn was a mild success, but was overshadowed by Sony and Nintendo’s dominance of the market. The Saturn was discontinued in 1998 with the release of Sega’s last console, the Dreamcast.
  • Sony’s PlayStation was released in Japan on December 3, 1994 and in North America on September 9, 1995. The PlayStation was the eventual result of a breakdown of a business partnership plan between Sony and Nintendo to create a CD add-on for the SNES. Nintendo changed the deal and went to Philips; however, with the project nearing completion, Sony took what it had and marketed it off as a Sony-branded console. The PlayStation spawned a whole lineup of consoles from generation to generation and has earned Sony great respect as a video game company, becoming the first video game system to sell over 100 million consoles. Sony released a redesigned, smaller version of the PlayStation entitled the ‘PSone’ on July 7, 2000.
  • The Nintendo 64 was released in North America on September 29, 1996 as Nintendo’s answer to the growing dominance of the PlayStation. It was a 64-bit console, the only one generally recognized in that class despite the 64-bit Atari Jaguar, which had actually been released earlier. Unlike the other companies’ consoles of the generation, the N64 had continued to use ROM cartridges, which many saw as a hindrance to gameplay, as cartridges have much less memory space and are also more expensive than optical media; however, Nintendo’s answer to this was that unlike CDs, cartridges cannot be damaged by a simple scratch to the surface, load times are not much of an issue, and save data can be stored on the cartridge rather than on a memory card. Nevertheless, some believe that Nintendo did this for fear of then growing software piracy issues facing other consoles, such as the PlayStation. Sony would dominate most of the software market using CD instead of cartridges .

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Sixth generation

This generation saw a move towards PC-like architectures in gaming consoles, as well as a shift towards using DVDs for game media. This brought games that were both longer and more visually appealing. Furthermore, this generation also saw experimentation with online console gaming and implementing both flash and hard drive storage for game data.

  • Sega’s Dreamcast released in North America on September 9, 1999 was the company’s last video game console, and was the first of the generation’s consoles to be discontinued. Sega implemented a special type of optical media called the GD-ROM. These discs were created in order to prevent software piracy, which had been more easily done with consoles of the previous generation; however, this format was soon cracked as well. It was discontinued in 2002, and Sega transitioned to software developing/publishing only. It also sported a 33.6Kb or 56k modem which could be used to access the internet or play some of the games, like Phantasy Star Online, online.
  • Sony’s PlayStation 2 was released in North America on October 26, 2000 as the follow-up to its highly successful PlayStation, and was also the first home game console to be able to play DVDs. As was done with the original PlayStation in 2000, Sony redesigned the console in 2004 into a smaller version. As of July 2008, 140 million PlayStation 2 units have been sold. This makes it the best selling console of all time to date.
  • The Nintendo GameCube, released November 18, 2001 in North America, was Nintendo’s fourth home video game console and the first console by the company to use optical media instead of cartridges. The Nintendo GameCube did not play standard 12 cm DVDs, instead employing smaller 8 cm optical discs.
  • Microsoft’s Xbox, released on November 15, 2001 in North America, was the company’s first video game console. The first console to employ a hard drive right out of the box to save games, and had similar hardware specifications to a low-end desktop computer at the time of its release. Though criticized for its bulky size, which was easily twice that of the competition, as well as for the awkwardness of the original controller that shipped with it, it eventually gained popularity due in part to the success of the Halo franchise. The Xbox was the first console to include an Ethernet port and offered high speed online gaming through the Xbox LIVE service.

Seventh generation

The features introduced in this generation include the support of new disc formats: Blu-ray Disc, utilized by the PlayStation 3, and HD DVDsupported by the Xbox 360 via an optional $200 internal accessory addition, that was later discontinued as the format war closed. Another new technology is the use of motion as input, and IR tracking (as implemented on the Wii). Also, all seventh generation consoles support wireless controllers.

  • Microsoft kicked off the seventh generation with the release of the Xbox 360 released on November 22, 2005 in the US. It featured processing power never before seen until Sony rivaled back with its Playstation 3 one year later. All Xbox 360s come with a hard drive (except for the 4GB SSD version) and additionally play DVD games as well as DVD movies out of the box. The Xbox 360 has HDMI output, but can only natively display 720p, which is HD, unlike the Playstation 3, which can natively display 1080p, Full HD. The 720p on the Xbox 360 can be upscaled to 1080p Full HD, which would render the same quality effects as the Playstation 3, but this would be done by the TV that you have the Xbox 360 connected to (if TV is capable). You can have up to four controllers connected to the console wirelessly on the standard 2.4 GHz spectrum. There are 3 discontinued versions of the Xbox 360: the “Arcade,” the “Arcade Pro,” and the “Elite.” The two current shipping versions of the Xbox 360 are: a “slim” 4GB SSD version and a “slim” 250 GB HDD version. The motion gaming capabilities of this console is named the “Kinect.”
  • Sony PlayStation 3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, in North America on November 17, 2006 and in Europe on March 23, 2007. All PlayStation 3s come with a hard drive and are able to play Blu-ray Disc games and Blu-ray Disc movies out of the box. The PlayStation 3 was the first video game console to support HDMI output out of the box, utilizing full 1080p resolution. Up to seven controllers can connect to the console using Bluetooth. There are 6 discontinued versions of the PS3: a 20 GB HDD version (discontinued in North America and Japan, and was never released in PAL territories), a 40 GB HDD version (discontinued), a 60 GB HDD version (discontinued in North America, Japan and PAL territories), 80 GB HDD version (only in some NTSC territories and PAL territories), a “slim” 120GB HDD version (discontinued), and a “slim” 250 GB version (discontinued). The two current shipping versions of the PlayStation 3 are: a “slim” 160 GB HDD version and a “slim” 320 GB HDD version. The hard drive can be replaced with any standard 2.5″Serial ATA drive and the system has support for removable media storage, such as Memory Stick, Memory Stick Pro, Memory Stick Duo, Memory Stick PRO Duo, USB, SD, MiniSD, and CompactFlash (CF) digital media, but only the PlayStation versions up to 80 GB support this. The slim PlayStation 3 consoles (120 GB and up) had removable storage discontinued. The motion capabilities of this console is named the “PlayStation Move.” You hold one main controller in your dominant hand (usually the right) and an optional second controller in your recessive hand (usually the left). The “PlayStation Move’s” controllers are always accurately being tracked by a camera.
  • Nintendo Wii was released in North America on November 19, 2006, in Japan on December 2, 2006, in Australia on December 7, 2006, and in Europe on December 8, 2006. It is bundled with Wii Sports and Wii Sports Resort in all regions except for Japan. Unlike the other systems of the seventh generation, the Wii does not support an internal hard drive, but instead uses 512 MB of internal Flash memory and includes support for removable SD card storage. It also has a maximum resolution output of 480p, making it the only seventh generation console not able to output high-definition graphics. Along with its lower price, the Wii is notable for its unique controller, the Wii Remote, which resembles a TV remote. The system utilizes a “sensor bar” that emits infrared light that is detected by an infrared camera in the Wii Remote to determine orientation relative to the source of the light. Like Nintendo’s hand-held systems, it is also backwards compatible with previous Nintendo consoles, as it is capable of playing Nintendo GameCube games and supports up to four Nintendo GameCube controllers and two memory cards. It also includes Virtual Console, which allows the purchase and downloading of games from older systems, including those of former competitors. The latest addition to the Wii is the ‘Wii Motion Plus’, which uses the same technology as the console previously used, but with enhanced motion tracking and sensing to improve gameplay quality. The Wii has two colors: a white one or a black one. They both come with Wii Sports, Wii Sports Resort, and Wii Motion Plus, a controller add-on to make it more accurate.


Each new generation of console hardware made use of the rapid development of processing technology. Newer machines could output a greater range of colors, more sprites, and introduced graphical technologies such as scaling, and vector graphics. One way this increase in processing power was conveyed to consumers was through the measurement of “bits”. The TurboGrafx-16, Sega Genesis, and SNES were among the first consoles to advertise the fact that they contained 16-bit processors. This fourth generation of console hardware was often referred to as the 16-bit era, and the previous generation as the 8-bit.

The bit-value of a console referred to the word length of a console’s processor (although the value was sometimes misused, for example the TurboGrafx 16 had only an 8-bit CPU, and the Genesis/Mega Drive had the 16/32-bit Motorola 68000, but both had a 16-bit dedicated graphics processor). As the graphical performance of console hardware is dependent on many factors, using bits was a crude way to gauge a console’s overall ability, but served better to distinguish between generations.



Standard game cartridges for several popular consoles. From front to back:Game Boy Color, Sega Genesis, andAtari 2600.

Game cartridges consist of a printed circuit board housed inside of a plastic casing, with a connector allowing the device to interface with the console. The circuit board can contain a wide variety of components. All cartridge games contain at the minimum, read only memory with the software written on it. Many cartridges also carry components that increase the original console’s power, such as extra RAM or a coprocessor. Components can also be added to extend the original hardware’s functionality (such as gyroscopes, rumble packs, tilt-sensors, light sensors, etc.); this is more common on handheld consoles where the user does not interact with the game through a separate video game controller.

Cartridges were the first external media to be used with home consoles and remained the most common until 1995 continued improvements in capacity (Nintendo 64 being the last mainstream game console to use cartridges). Nevertheless, the relatively high manufacturing costs saw them completely replaced by optical media for home consoles by the early 21st century, although they are still in use in some handheld video game consoles.

Due to the aforementioned capabilities of cartridges such as more memory and coprocessors, those factors make it harder to reverse engineer consoles to be used on emulators.


Several consoles such as the Sega Master System and the TurboGrafx-16 have used different types of smart cards as an external medium. These cards function similar to simple cartridges. Information is stored on a chip that is housed in plastic. Cards are more compact and simpler than cartridges, though. This makes them cheaper to produce and smaller, but limits what can be done with them. Cards cannot hold extra components, and common cartridge techniques like bank switching (a technique used to create very large games) were impossible to miniaturize into a card in the late 1980s.

Compact Discs reduced much of the need for cards. Optical Discs can hold more information than cards, and are cheaper to produce. The Nintendo GameCube and the PlayStation 2 use memory cards for storage, but the Nintendo DS is the only modern system to use cards for game distribution. Nintendo has long used cartridges with their Game Boy line of hand held consoles because of their durability, small size, stability (not shaking and vibrating the handheld when it is in use), and low battery consumption. Nintendo switched to cards for the DS, because advances in memory technology made putting extra memory on the cartridge unnecessary.

Magnetic media

Two common forms of magnetic media. From front to back: Cassette and3½-inch floppy disk.

Home computers have long used magnetic storage devices. Both tape drives and floppy disk drives were common on early microcomputers. Their popularity is in large part because a tape drive or disk drive can write to any material it can read. However, magnetic media is volatile and can be more easily damaged than game cartridges or optical discs.

Among the first consoles to use magnetic media were the Bally Astrocade and APF-M1000, both of which could use cassette tapes through expansions. In Bally’s case, this allowed the console to see new game development even after Bally dropped support for it. While magnetic media remained limited in use as a primary form of distribution, two popular subsequent consoles also had expansions available to allow them to use this format. The Starpath Supercharger can load Atari 2600 games from audio cassettes; Starpath used it to cheaply distribute their own games from 1982 to 1984 and today it is used by many programmers to test, distribute, and play homebrew software. The Family Computer Disk System was released by Nintendo in 1985 for the Japanese market. Nintendo sold the disks cheaply and sold vending machines where customers could have new games written to their disks up to 500 times.

Optical media

The most widely used forms of optical media are DVDs and compact discs. Shown is a CD-ROM (left) and a game in Nintendo’s proprietary optical disc format.

In the mid-1990s, various manufacturers shifted to optical media, specifically CD-ROM, for games. Although they were slower at loading game data than the cartridges available at that time, they were significantly cheaper to manufacture and had a larger capacity than the existing cartridge technology. Commodore released the first CD-disc based Amiga CD32 in September 1993, which was also the first 32-bit game console. By the early 21st century, all of the major home consoles used optical media, usually DVD-ROM or similar disks, which are widely replacing CD-ROM for data storage. The PlayStation 3 system uses even higher-capacity Blu-ray optical discs for games and movies while the Xbox 360 formerly used HD DVDs in the form of an external USB player add-on for movies, before it was discontinued. Microsoft still however, supports those who bought the accessory.

Internet distribution

All three seventh generation consoles (the PlayStation 3, Wii, and Xbox 360) offer some kind of Internet games distribution service, allowing users to download games for a fee onto some form of non-volatile storage, typically a hard disk or flash memory. Recently, the console manufacturers have been taking full advantage of Internet distribution with arcade games, television shows and film trailers being available.

  • Microsoft’s Xbox Live service includes the Xbox Live Arcade and Xbox Live Marketplace, featuring digital distribution of classic and original titles. These include arcade classics, original titles, and games originally released on other consoles. The Xbox Live Marketplace also includes many different hit movies and trailers in high definition, and is accessible with a free Xbox Live Silver Membership.
  • Sony’s online game distribution is known as the PlayStation Network (PSN). It offers free online gaming, downloadable content such as classic PlayStation games, high definition games and movie trailers, and original games such as flOw and Everyday Shooter as well as some games that also release on Blu-ray Disc such as Warhawk and Gran Turismo 5: Prologue. A networking service, dubbedPlayStation Home, was released in December 2008. Sony also announced a video/movie service and music service for some time in 2008.
  • Nintendo’s Virtual Console service emulates games from the Nintendo 64, Sega Genesis/Mega Drive, NES/Famicom, TurboGrafx-16, SNES/Super Famicom, Neo Geo, and Sega Master System/Game Gear. The service also emulates titles from the Commodore 64 in US and Europe, and the MSX platform in Japan. Nintendo also has original Wii content available for download through its WiiWare service.

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Source: Wikipedia.org